**PH3256 **

**PHYSICS
FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE **

**COURSE
OBJECTIVES:**

•
To make the students understand the importance in studying electrical
properties of materials.

•
To enable the students to gain knowledge in semiconductor physics

•
To instill knowledge on magnetic properties of materials.

•
To establish a sound grasp of knowledge on different optical properties of
materials, optical displays and applications

•
To inculcate an idea of significance of nano structures, quantum confinement,
ensuing nano device applications and quantum computing.

**UNIT
I ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS**

Classical
free electron theory - Expression for electrical conductivity – Thermal conductivity,
expression - Wiedemann-Franz law – Success and failures - electrons in metals –
Particle in a three dimensional box – degenerate states – Fermi- Dirac
statistics – Density of energy states – Electron in periodic potential – Energy
bands in solids – tight binding approximation - Electron effective mass –
concept of hole.

**UNIT
II SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS**

Intrinsic
Semiconductors – Energy band diagram – direct and indirect band gap
semiconductors – Carrier concentration in intrinsic semiconductors – extrinsic
semiconductors - Carrier concentration in N-type & P-type semiconductors –
Variation of carrier concentration with temperature – variation of Fermi level
with temperature and impurity concentration – Carrier transport in
Semiconductor: random motion, drift, mobility and diffusion – Hall effect and
devices – Ohmic contacts – Schottky diode.

**UNIT
III MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS**

Magnetic
dipole moment – atomic magnetic moments- magnetic permeability and
susceptibility - Magnetic material classification: diamagnetism – paramagnetism
– ferromagnetism – antiferromagnetism – ferrimagnetism – Ferromagnetism: origin
and exchange interaction- saturation magnetization and Curie temperature –
Domain Theory- M versus H behaviour – Hard and soft magnetic materials –
examples and uses-– Magnetic principle in computer data storage – Magnetic hard
disc (GMR sensor).

**UNIT
IV OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS**

Classification
of optical materials – carrier generation and recombination processes -
Absorption emission and scattering of light in metals, insulators and
semiconductors (concepts only) - photo current in a P-N diode – solar cell -
LED – Organic LED – Laser diodes – Optical data storage techniques.

**UNIT
V NANODEVICES AND QUANTUM COMPUTING**

Introduction
- quantum confinement – quantum structures: quantum wells, wires and dots ––
band gap of nanomaterials. Tunneling – Single electron phenomena: Coulomb
blockade - resonant- tunneling diode – single electron transistor – quantum
cellular automata - Quantum system for information processing - quantum states
– classical bits – quantum bits or qubits –CNOT gate - multiple qubits – Bloch
sphere – quantum gates – advantage of quantum computing over classical
computing.

**COURSE
OUTCOMES:**

At
the end of the course, the students should be able to

CO1: gain
knowledge on classical and quantum electron theories, and energy band
structures

CO2: acquire knowledge on basics of semiconductor physics and its
applications in various devices

CO3: get knowledge on magnetic properties of
materials and their applications in data storage,

CO4: have the necessary
understanding on the functioning of optical materials for optoelectronics

CO5: understand the basics of quantum structures and their applications and
basics of quantum computing

**TEXT
BOOKS:**

1. Jasprit Singh, “Semiconductor Devices:
Basic Principles”, Wiley (Indian Edition), 2007.

2. S.O. Kasap. Principles of Electronic
Materials and Devices, McGraw-Hill Education (Indian Edition), 2020.

3. Parag K. Lala, Quantum Computing: A
Beginner's Introduction, McGraw-Hill Education (Indian Edition), 2020.

**REFERENCES:**

1. Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid
State Physics, Wiley India Edition, 2019.

2. Y.B.Band and Y.Avishai, Quantum Mechanics
with Applications to Nanotechnology and

3. Information Science, Academic Press,
2013.

4. V.V.Mitin, V.A. Kochelap and
M.A.Stroscio, Introduction to Nanoelectronics, Cambridge Univ.Press, 2008.

5. G.W. Hanson, Fundamentals of
Nanoelectronics, Pearson Education (Indian Edition) 2009.

6. B.Rogers, J.Adams and S.Pennathur,
Nanotechnology: Understanding Small Systems, CRC Press, 2014.